It was the best of times, it was the worst of times.

GraphThree news stories capture the Dickensian times we live in. The first reports record profits in the Canadian banking sector (“The money machines we love to have: profits soar at Canada’s big banks”). The second reports concerns regarding Canada’s high level of consumer debt and overheated housing markets (“Household debt, home prices biggest risk to Canadian economy, Bank of Canada says” ). These two stories resonate with a third reporting that roughly 1/5 borrowers would fail a mortgage stress test coming into effect January 1, 2018 (“New mortgage stress test rules block 50,000 people from buying: mortgage group”). Perhaps our fate lies in the assimilation of these stories?

 

 

 

Tagged

Canada’s Long-Awaited National Housing Strategy: Initial Thoughts

On November 22, 2017 Prime Minister Justin Trudeau’s Liberal government announced a National Housing Strategy aimed at addressing affordability problems in the Canadian housing system, primarily among low-income households.

The Liberal strategy aims to add 100,000 new affordable units to the Canadian housing system and lift 530,000 families out of core housing need.

Recent census data shows that in 2016 1,775,570 rental households spent more than 30% of their income on shelter (a common measure of affordability). Of these households, 282,825 were living in subsidized housing and 1,536,740 were not.

Clearly, the need exceeds the supports that will roll out over the next 10 years therefore targeting of some kind will be necessary.  One rationale could be the prioritization of households with children. A recent Statistics Canada report showed that 1.2 million Canadian children live in low income households representing almost 1/4 of all low income individuals. This approach could make a significant impact as far as reducing child poverty is concerned.

Tagged

Putting Data-Driven Urbanism in its Place

Circuitboard

I am embarking upon a new research project. Summary below. This project includes opportunities for undergraduate and graduate students. Click on link on the bottom for detailed description. Inquiries can be directed to joshua.evans@ualberta.ca

Cities have an endless appetite for knowledge. Increasingly, cities are turning to data-driven and computationally intensive forms of urban analysis to address so-called ‘wicked problems’ (e.g. crime, poverty, climate change). Fueled by the proliferation of ‘big data’ and accelerating computational power, this data-driven urbanism is celebrated as offering new understandings of urban problems and new ‘smarter’ forms of urban governance and organization. In a short time, it has given rise to new sites and spaces such as urban observatories, urban laboratories, urban data platforms, urban operating systems and urban dashboards. Seen by many as cutting-edge and innovative, at the core of this data-driven urbanism is the timeworn belief that objective, evidence-based understandings of the city, arrived at using the scientific method, can improve the quality of urban life. This is one of the appeals of the new urban science. Its realist epistemology and instrumental rationality give the impression that research and planning processes can be uncoupled from the value-laden realities of urban politics. But several decades of scholarship in science studies challenges this impression: science is fully imbricated within networks of power, perceptions of validity and relations of trust. Moreover, space and place matter in the conduct of scientific inquiry. Issues of politics are fundamental to science and, by extension, the new urban science and data-driven urbanism. This research project will critically reflect upon the data-driven urbanism by concentrating analytical attention on the social and material assemblages and networks that make urban data viable. The project will undertake and compare case studies of data-driven urbanism (i.e. urban observatory, urban laboratory, urban data platforms) in Canadian cities. Each case study will tell stories of data-driven urbanism that reveal the complex assemblages of people, places, documents and technologies that must be held in place to produce data. By unpacking this ‘holding in place’ case studies will shed light on an important yet under-acknowledged political register in urban affairs. Furthermore, comparing and contrasting these case studies will illuminate what such registers mean for how cities are known and governed in the 21st century.

Project Detailed Description

Tagged

Homeownership: Dwelling in the Commodity Form

file_000

I’m embarking upon a book project with the tentative title Homeownership: Dwelling in the Commodity Form. The general topic of the book will be housing. Why? Housing is vital in every sense of the word. It is a fundamental locus of human experience, a powerful spatial form that structures social relations, and a storehouse of wealth. These three themes – dwelling, norms, value – will structure the book’s inquiry. This much I know.

But I’m unsure about the book’s empirical focus, scope and argumentation (although the tentative title offers a hint regarding the direction I’m going). Time and again I’ve been returning to a mantra posed by Peter Sloterdijk (2009, 1): “humans are themselves an effect of the space they create.” Well, what can we learn about the being of being human from the domestic spaces we (N. America) have created? The detached single family home, the row house, the apartment, the hotel, the recreational vehicle, the tent, the emergency shelter, the street…

I’m using the medium of this blog to think ‘out loud,’ refine ideas, and archive material. Comments, suggestions, critiques are welcome.

References

Sloterdijk, P. (2009) Spheres Theory: Talking to Myself About the Poetics of Space. Harvard Design Magazine, Spring/Summer, no. 30, 1-8

The Epistemic Geographies of Homelessness

For the last couple of years I have been working to better understand the epistemic geographies constituting the politics of homelessness in Canada. After following the rise of policy models such as Housing First it became more apparent to me that calculative practices, particularly ones that measure social costs, have proven instrumental in transforming social service systems addressing chronic homelessness. Damian Collins and Jalene Anderson (both at the University of Alberta) and I recently published an article in Social Science & Medicine – entitled Homelessness, Bedspace and the Case for Housing First in Canada – that offers a preliminary attempt at mapping this calculative geography. We arrived at the term ‘bedspace’ to describe this political spatiality. Abstract and link to the article is below.

Homelessness, Bedspace and the Case for Housing First in Canada

Abstract

The act of problem formation is integral to the policymaking process. Moreover, the process by which certain situations, experiences or events are rendered problematic hinges upon the places, spaces and networks through which the issue is made visible and intelligible to policy makers and decision makers. In this paper, we explore these epistemic geographies by unpacking one such example e the Mental Health Commission of Canada’s At Home/Chez Soi study, a federally funded, $110 million field trial of the Housing First (HF) model. HF prioritizes rapid rehousing of the chronically homeless, followed by separate support and treatment services. The model has become widespread in Canada since 2005, based in large part on understandings of its cost-effectiveness. In this article, we utilize At Home/Chez Soi as an illustrative case for examining how ‘chronic homelessness’ is translated into a discourse of costs and benefits, and given an accounting value, through a series of translations. This problematization advances a particular logic, what we refer to as ‘bedspace’.

Effective Systems Responses to Homelessness

An insightful and comprehensive e-book from the Homeless Hub is now available as a free download. The book, edited by Naomi Nichols and Carey Doberstein, explores issues, practices and experiences associated with coordinated efforts to end homelessness in Canada. Robert Wilton and I have a chapter in this great volume entitled “What is needed is the mortar to hold these blocks together”: Coordinating Local Services Through Community-Based Managerialism.

The book is available for download here.

Our chapter can be found here.

5 things to know about housing bubbles

1. Low interest rates, weakening credit standards, and lack of financial regulation are not the cause of housing bubbles; rather, they are better viewed as products of housing bubbles (Shiller 2012).

2. Housing bubbles are created when irrational public optimism and enthusiasm regarding future home values increases demand causing a region’s housing market to become overvalued (Shiller 2012).

3. This irrational exuberance is contagious and can ‘spill over’ into other regions but not necessarily the geographically closest region (Nneji et al. 2015).

4. The bursting of a bubble is caused by an event, one that results in the downward correction of current and anticipated house prices and, subsequently, the destruction of public optimism about the housing market (Duca et al. 2010).

5. When bubbles burst, house price corrections tend to be more extreme in regions that experience the largest and most rapid growth in house prices and where the ratio between house prices and rental rates is the greatest (Nneji et al. 2015).

References

Duca, J.V., Muellbauer, J., and Murphy, A. (2010). Housing markets and the financial crisis of 2007-2009: Lessons for the future. Journal of Financial Stability, 6, 203-217

Nneji, O., Brooks, C., and Ward, C.W.R. (2015). Speculative Bubble Spillovers across Regional Housing Markets. Land Economics, 91(3): 516-535

Shiller, R.J. (2012). Subprime Solution: How Today’s Global Financial Crisis Happened, and What to Do about It. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press

Debt Crisis on the Horizon?

Authentic or alarmist? This is the question Canadians are asking themselves when it comes to concerns being raised regarding record levels of consumer debt and the recent rate hike by the U.S. Federal Reserve.

Daniel Tencer contends that “35 years of economic history is coming to an end.

Neil MacDonald says “America has had its housing ‘correction,’ ours is yet to come.”

Barrie McKenna and Tamsin McMahon describe the Bank of Canada’s “angst” regarding a “housing crash.”

Tagged ,

First as tragedy, then as farce

As oil prices continue to hover around $40 a barrel, and the unemployment rate creeps higher each month, a correction in the Alberta housing market is in full swing. In Calgary, home sales are down 28% and home prices have dropped 5% from November 2014. In Fort McMurray, home sale prices have dropped more than $117,000.  Canadian Mortgage and Housing chief executive Evan Sidell recently stated that if oil prices stay near the $35/barrel mark for 5 years, provinces like Alberta could experience a catastrophic collapse in house prices on the scale of the housing crisis that occurred in the United States 7 years ago.

This comparison to the U.S. housing crisis is valid if you consider conditions in provinces like Alberta. Many attribute the crisis to deregulated financial markets and shoddy lending practices that contributed to defaults on sub-prime mortgages causing insolvency in the banking sector. But too often people forget to ask why mortgage defaults occurred in the first place. At the centre of the crisis was the accumulation of unsustainable levels of debt and record high levels of wealth inequality (Bartolini et al. 2014; De Vogli and Owusu 2015). This changed behavior among consumers, enough of whom decided to spend less and pay off debt, while others could not simply keep up with interest payments and defaulted. This quickly spiraled into a cycle of unemployment, mortgage defaults and home foreclosures in certain regions. These downward spirals spilled over into other regions. Deregulated financial markets transformed the housing crisis into a banking crisis.

Canadians, and Albertans in particular, should not act as if we are immune to this scenario. Household debt levels are at a record high in Canada. Moreover, households in Alberta have been found to be particularly vulnerable to a major economic shock. It is no longer possible to claim our banking rules and mortgage markets are better regulated as major Canadian mortgage lenders are now under investigation. As the repercussions of the oil glut reverberate through the Alberta economy an economic contraction not unlike that which occurred in the United States remains a real possibility.

References:

Bartolini, S. Bonatti, L. and Sarracino, F. 2014. The great recession and the bulimia of US consumers: deep causes and possible ways out. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 38, 1015-1042

De Vogli, R. and Owusu, J. 2015. The causes and health effects of the Great Recession: from neoliberalism to ‘healthy de-growth.’ Critical Public Health, 25(1), 15-31

Tagged ,

Paris November 13, Réflexion

Here is an ensemble of recently published reflections on the Paris attacks by notable thinkers.

Slavoj Zizek writes:

There should be no “deeper understanding” of the ISIS terrorists (in the sense of “their deplorable acts are nonetheless reactions to European brutal interventions”); they should be characterized as what they are: the Islamo-Fascist counterpart of the European anti-immigrant racists—the two are the two sides of the same coin.

Etienne Balibar writes:

So what can we do? At all costs, firstly, we must reflect together and must resist all fear, amalgams, and impulses for vengeance. Clearly, we must take all necessary measures for civil and military protection, for intelligence and for security, in order to prevent terrorist actions or to counteract them, and if possible to judge and punish the perpetrators and accomplices involved. But, in doing so, we must demand the most complete vigilance on the part of  ‘democratic’ states with regard to acts of hatred towards those nationals and residents who, as a result of their origins, beliefs, or ways of life, are singled out as ‘the interior enemy’ by self-proclaimed patriots. And further: require that the same states – when reinforcing their security devices – respect individual and collective rights which are the foundation of their own legitimacy. The examples of the ‘Patriot Act’ and of Guantanamo show us that this is not so easy.

Bruno Latour writes:

But what makes the current situation so much more dismaying is that the crimes committed on 13 November have occurred within a few days of another event about to take place that involves tragedies of a different kind, ones that will require that we come with very different answers to wholly different threats that have nothing to do with ISIS/Daech. I am referring, of course, to the World Climate Change Conference in Paris, the COP21, which we are now liable to deem less serious, less urgent than the police response to the bloody escapades of those machine gun-toting lunatics.

Tagged , , ,